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Irvine


Coat of Arms


Erewine and Erwinne are old English personal names, and Gilchrist, son of Erwini, witnessed a charter of the Lord of Galloway sometime between 1124 and 1165. The Brythonic 'ir-afon' means 'green water'. The lands which first bore the name of Irvine appear to have been in Dumfriesshire. Family tradition asserts that the origin of the chiefly family is linked with the early Celtic monarchs of Scotlan.....


Heraldry Database: Kincaid

Kincaid







Surname:  Kincaid
Branch:  Kincaid
Origins:  Scottish
More Info:  Scotland

Background:  The name is topographical in origin and very old. It was originally Pen Coed which is Brythonic Celtic (i.e. similar to Welsh) and meant head of the woods. Later, when Gaelic overtook that language of the Strathcylde Britons the name became half-translated into Gaelic as Ceann Caith (pronounced KyAN KAY). Much later, of course, this was anglicised into Kincaid.


Motto:  This I defend.
Arms:  Gules, a fess Erimine between two mullets in chief Or and a triple-towered castle in base Argent, masoned Sable.
Crest:  A triple towered castle Argent, masoned Sable, and issuing from the centre tower a dexter arm from the shoulder embowed, vested in the proper tartan of Kincaid and grasping a drawn sword all Proper.
Supporters:  Two Highlanders dressed in Highland garb and having kilts and plaids of the proper tartan of Kincaid, and with steel cuirasses, their sleeves being also of the Kincaid tartan, and from shoulder-belts basket-kilted swords, their hats Azure, plumed of an ostrich feather Argent, and banded counter company Argent and Gules, holding in their exterior hands Lochaber axes Proper.


View the Heraldry Dictionary for help.






The Kincaids are said to descend from the ancient Earls of Lennox, the Galbraiths of Buthernock, the Grahames and the Comyn Lords of Badenoch. Their name appears to be territorial in origin, but its derivation is uncertain. One explanation is that it comes from the Gaelic, ‘ceann cadha’, the ‘steep place’ or ‘pass’. A second translation may be ‘of the head of the rock’, and a third possibility is, ‘the head of the battle,’ which could refer to a later achievement in the family history.

An early reference to the name is found in 1238, when Alexander III granted the lands of the Kincade to Maldouen, third Earl of Lennox, who in the same year granted the lands to Sir William Galbraith, the fourth chief of that name. The Galbraiths’ principal castle was originally Craigmaddie, but when the line ended in three sisters the estate was partitioned. In 1280, one of the sisters married a Logan, and they obtained confirmation of the lands of Kyncade by a charter from the fourth Earl of Lennox, and the family took their surname from the property. The Kyncade lands (now with a new spelling) extended from the River Glazert to the River Kelvin and were thought originally to consist of thirty thousand acres.

Although Kincaids have not made a great mark in Scottish history, one member of the family distinguished himself by gallant conduct against the English forces of Edward I, and in his valiant services in the successful recapture of Edinburgh Castle in 1296. The then Laird of Kincaid was made constable of Edinburgh Castle, an office he held until around 1314. It was during the reign of Robert the Bruce that the castle on the Kincaid shield was granted as an honourable augmentation to his armorial bearings as a reference to his feat.

When the Kincaids obtained their lands at the end of the thirteenth century they would have erected a tower or peel. There is no trace of this building today, but a house was built around 1690, enlarged in the mid eighteenth century and rebuilt in 1812.

From the late sixteenth century onwards, the family increased their landholdings in the east of the country. Firstly, as a result of an advantageous marriage, the Kincaids gained the estate of Craiglockhart near Edinburgh. In due course they added to this the estate of Bantaskin near Falkirk, the grim Blackness Castle near Linlithgow and the fields of Warriston, now a suburb of Edinburgh. Malcolm Kincaid, who lost his left arm in a clan skirmish in 1563, was actively engaged in a feud in the 1570s with the Lennoxes of Woodhead. The luckless Malcolm was killed by a Stirling of Glovat in 1581. Some historians have commented that the feud with the Lennoxes is made remarkable by the fact that it was later by marriage to that very family that the Kincaid name was carried on to be re-established as an independent clan in the twentieth century. John Kincaid of Warriston was murdered in 1600 by one of his grooms who was in league with his wife. The conspiracy was detected and the groom forced to confess. The couple both suffered the ultimate penalty for their crime but, although the Lady of Warriston was beheaded in deference to her rank, the hapless groom was ‘broken on the wheel’.

The Kincaids fought on the royalist side in the civil wars of the seventeeth century, campaigning largely in Ireland. The family suffered considerable hardship as a result of its adherence to the royal cause, and many of the name emigrated to North America. The family were later supporters of the Stuart cause in exile, and following the rising in 1715 David Kincaid was obliged to leave Scotland, ultimately settling in Virginia. In 1746 four sons of Alexander Kincaid, Lord Provost of Edinburgh, and the King’s Printer, fought a rearguard action after Culloden, but were ultimately taken prisoner and their doom seemed certain. However, they escaped and took ship for America, and they, too, settled in Virginia. At the end of the eighteenth century the principal line of the Kincaids married into the Lennox family and for most of the next two centuries the names were virtually synonymous. The Kincaids have now re-established themselves as an independent family and the late Madam Heather Kincaid of Kincaid was the first chief of the name to sit on the Council of Chiefs.

Name Variations:  Kincaid, Kinkeed, Kincade, Kyncade, Kinkaid, Kinncaed, Kinncaid, Kinncayd, Kyncaed, Kynncayd.

References:
One or more of the following publications has been referenced for this article.
The General Armory; Sir Bernard Burke - 1842.
A Handbook of Mottoes; C.N. Elvin - 1860.
Scottish Clans and Tartans; Neil Grant - 2000.
Scottish Clan and Family Encyclopedia; George Way of Plean and Romilly Squire - 1994.
Scottish Clans and Tartans; Ian Grimble - 1973.
World Tartans; Iain Zaczek - 2001.
Clans and Families of Scotland; Alexander Fulton - 1991.






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