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Coat of Arms

The name Dolan is fairly common to-day in Ulster - in the Catholic areas of Counties Cavan and Fermanagh - and in the Counties of Roscommon and Galway in Connacht. The latter is the place of origin of this sept which is a branch of the Ui Maine (Hy Many). In the census of 1659 the name appears principally in Counties Roscommon and Fermanagh (the portion dealing with Co. Galway is missing). The gen.....

Heraldry Database: Cameron


Surname:  Cameron
Branch:  Cameron
Origins:  Scottish
More Info:  Scotland

Background:  There are several theories concerning the origin of this name: one states that they are descended from a younger son of Camchron, a king of Denmark, but the more likely explanation is that the first authentic chief of the clan, Donald Dubh, was descended either from the Macgillonies or from the mediaeval family of Cameron of Ballegarno in Fife. Donald Dubh married an heiress of the Macmartins of Letterfinlay, and by his prowess and leadership, united the confederation tribes which became known as the Clan Cameron. He is believed to have been born around 1400, and he and his successors were known as captains of Clan Cameron until the time of Ewan Macallan, in the early sixteenth century, when the lands of Lochiel were united by charter into the Barony of Lochiel. Ewan’s father, Alan Macdonald Dubh, the twelfth chief, was reckoned to be one of the bravest captains of his time. It was during his lifetime that the feud began with the Mackintosh clan, which was to continue sporadically for about three hundred years.

Ewan Macallan was one of the great Cameron chiefs, well favoured at court and very successful in all he undertook. The untimely death of his eldest son, Donald, was a great blow to him and, resolved to give up the world, he went on pilgrimage to Rome. The pope ordained that he should build six chapels to expiate his sins – the church at Cilachoireil, Roy Bridge, is on the site of one of these chapels. He later supported the heir to the Lordship of the Isles in an unsuccessful revolt, was apprehended by Huntly, and executed at Elgin. A renowned clansman known as Taillear Dubh na Tuaighe (Black Tailor of the Axe), who was a fearless warrior, was a natural leader of the clan during the sixteenth chief’s minority. He later left Lochaber and settled near Dunoon. There are many descendants of his, bearing the name of Taylor, who are loyal adherents to the Clan Cameron. The next great chief was Sir Ewen, who was born in 1629 and died in 1719. As a young man, his education was overseen by the Marquess of Argyll, but his allegiances were altered after a trip to Edinburgh, where he witnessed the execution of Montrose and heard of his exploits. He became an implacable enemy of the Parliamentarian forces and fought many battles to preserve the independence of his clan. In 1682 he was knighted by the Duke of York in Edinburgh, and he took part with Dundee in the Battle of Killiecrankie in 1689 in support of James VII. As a soldier, he was fearless and as a chief, he was loved, trusted and admired by his clansmen. His grandson, known as the ‘gentle Lochiel’, was an enlightened chief who tried to improve the lot of his clansmen. When Bonnie Prince Charlie landed in Scotland in August 1745, the chief, as a staunch Jacobite, felt duty bound to meet him, and was eventually won over by the prince to support his cause with all his clan. The history of the Forty-five is well known, but if Lochiel had not come out with his clan, the rising might never have taken place, and the chief always felt guilty that he had allowed his better jugment to be thwarted by the prince’s natural charm. He died in France in 1748, mourned by friend and foe alike.

The savage repercussions which followed the disaster of Culloden altered the Highlands beyond recognition. The Cameron clan lands were forfeited, their houses burned, and their cattle removed or shot. The chief’s wooden house, situated near the present House of Achnacarry, was destroyed. Today, only its stone gable remains, together with a summer house by the River Arkaig. In 1784 the estate was returned to Donald, grandson of the gentle Lochiel, subject to a large fine. He decided to build a new house at Achnacarry which he started in about 1802, with the help of James Gillespie, the prominent Scottish architect. The project was later abandoned but his son, Donald, the twenty-third chief, completed the building which today stands by the banks of the River Arkaig, unaltered except for a wing added by his grandson.

The Cameron Highlanders, who have always had a very close association with the clan, were raised by an outstanding soldier leader, Alan Cameron of Erracht, in 1793. Donald, twenty-fourth chief who died in 1905, was a Member of Parliament for Inverness-shire for seventeen years and a member of the Royal Commission enquiring into the grievances of the crofters in 1883. His son, Donald Walter, twenty-fifth chief, was a soldier, and at the outbreak of the First World War he raised four new battalions of Cameron Highlanders. In 1934 Lochiel was created a Knight of the Thistle and subsequently appointed Lord Lieutenant of Inverness-shire. The present chief, who succeeded his father in 1951, was also created Lord Lieutenant in 1971, and a Knight of the Thistle in 1973.

Motto:  Aeonaibh ri cheiléile, Unite.
Arms:  Gules, three bars Or.
Crest:  A sheaf of five arrows points upwards Proper tied with a band Gules.
Supporters:  Two savages wreathed about the head and middle with oak branches, each holding in his exterior hand a Lochaber Axe all Proper.
Badge:  A sheaf of five arrows points upwards Proper tied with a band Gules.
Plant:  Oak.

View the Heraldry Dictionary for help.

The Cameron country lies in Lochaber, which lies astride the south-western end of Glenalbyn, or the Great Glen, as it is often called. Glenalbyn divides the Highlands into two parts; to the south, the Southern Highlands, comprising the Grampian and Monadhliath ranges; to the north, the Northern and Western Highlands. The Caledonian Canal, first opened to traffic in 1822 traverses the entire length of Glenalbyn. Though a large part of Lochaber lies on the west side of the Lochy basin (which forms the southern end of Glenalbyn), there are two sub-divisions to the east; Brae Lochaber and Nether Lochaber. The county is very mountainous, some of the hills rising to 4000 feet and over; Ben Nevis, the highest mountain in Britain to 4406 feet. The whole area is intersected by sea lochs and fresh water lochs, wide straths, and narrow glens. The straths are generally fertile, and, where drained and cultivated, are capable of growing good crops. The glens provide excellent grazing for cattle and sheep; deer roam on the mountains and there are various types of game: grouse, blackgame, and ptarmigna. The rivers and lochs abound in salmon and trout; the sea lochs in many kinds of sea fish.

At the time this history begins, about 1400, the country in general outline must have looked very much the same as it does today, but the population, instead of being concentrated in the town of Fort William and its adjacent villages, was spread out over the whole area. In every glen were small settlements of perhaps half-a-dozen to a dozen rude huts, wherever the soil was sufficiently deep to allow for a little cultivation. Roads were non-existent, and all communication and transport was by foot, on horseback, or by native ponies carrying panniers, pack saddles, or drawing sledges. Wheeled vehicles were unknown. The inhabitants were tribes living in their own areas, carrying out their primitive pastoral and agricultural occupations, and pursuing their quarrels with neighboring tribes, generally over the occupation of the most desirable land.

Some time towards the end of the 14th century a chief or leader called Donald Dubh, whose surname was Cameron, arose in Lochaber. He must have been a man of importance, ability, and energy, for he had a large following composed of local tribes. Donald Dubh was the first "authentic" chief or captain of this confederation of tribes which gradually became known as the Clan Cameron, taking the name of their captain as the generic name of the whole, until the clan was first officially recognized by that name in a charter of 1472. From Donald Dubh all the later chiefs derived their Gaelic patronymic, MacDhomhnuill Duibh (the son of a dark haired or swarthy Donald) by which name the present chief is known in Gaeldom.

During the 13th and 14th centuries, the most important tribes in Lochaber were the Clan Donald, the Clan Chattan, and the Mael-anfhaidh. The Mael-anfhaidh consisted of three main tribes; the MacMartins of Letterfinlay; the Macgillonies (Mac ghille-anfhaidh); and the MacSorlies of Glennevis (Sliochd Shoirle Ruaidh). The MacMartins are said to have provided the chief of this confederation of tribes. Donald Dubh Cameron, already mentioned, married the MacMartin daughter (said to be the daughter of the MacMartin chief) and either through this or by his own prowess assumed the leadership or captaincy of the confederation of clans which later formed the Clan Cameron.

In 1396 took place the gladiatorial Battle of the North Inch of Perth. This amazing contest between representatives of two rival clans was fought in a specially prepared arena, surrounded by seats for spectators, and was watched by the flower of the Scottish nobility. Twelve men from each clan, some say more, chosen for their prowess, fought with sword and targe before the King, Robert III, who acted as judge. Actually the identity of the two clans engaged has never been established beyond doubt, but many authorities claim that the contest was arranged to settle the differences between Clan Macintosh and Clan Cameron, but if this was the case it was singularly unsuccessful. It is debatable which side won, but the feud went on as bitterly as before. This feud was to continue with varying fortunes for the next three hundred and fifty years!

Donald Dubh became chief at the time when the Lordship of the Isles was at its zenith. He is first heard of when he rose in support of Donald, and Lord of the Isles, in his rebellion of 1411. He raised a large force from amongst his own Clan Donald, and from his vassals and followers amongst whom were Donald Dubh and his followers. This army met the force of the Regent Albany at Harlaw, near Aberdeen. The Battle of Harlaw was a particularly bloody affair, and became known as "Red Harlaw." The result was indecisive, for casualties were so heavy on both sides that they could fight no more.

Eighteen years later, when Alexander, 3rd Lord of the Isles gathered his forces and attacked and sacked the town of Inverness, Donald Dubh with the Camerons rose in his support. The Macintoshes too formed part of his force. When, however, Alexander was returning to Lochaber he was intercepted by King James I with a large army. Donald Dubh and the Macintoshes, finding themselves opposed to their Sovereign, deserted Alexander of the Isles and joined the forces of the King. Some say that on this account Alexander's army was defeated, and Alexander himself submitted to the King and was imprisoned.

In the same year the two clans (Cameron and Macintosh) had a desperate encounter. Though the Camerons and Macintoshes agreed in their principals of loyalty, yet their former quarrel about the estate divided them as much as ever, and brought them to an engagement on Palm Sunday, which was fought with that obstinacy and furry, that most of the Macintoshes and almost the whole tribe of Camerons, were cut to pieces. In the meantime Donald Balloch, cousin of Alexander of the Isles, rose to avenge Alexander's imprisonment. Having defeated a Royal force, which included the Clan Cameron, sent to quell him at Inverlochy, he turned his attention to the Camerons and the Clan Chattan (Mackintosh), ravaged their country, putting it to fire and sword. The King then led an army into the Highlands, and the rebel forces disintegrated.

In 1437 the King was murdered, and Alexander, Lord of the Isles was liberated. He lost no time taking vengeance on the Camerons. Not only had they deserted him in 1429, but they had refused to join Donald Balloch's revolt in 1431. Donald Dubh Cameron was forced to fly to Ireland about 1438, and Alexander bestowed the Cameron lands upon John Garve Maclean of Coll. Donald Dubh soon returned to protect and lead his people. The clan retained the occupation of their lands by defeating the Macleans in a battle at Corpach.

Donald Dubh's son, Allan MacDonald Dubh (twelfth chief), must have succeeded his father shortly after 1461. The Camerons had apparently made their peace with the MacDonalds by this time. Allan had married a MacDonald lady, and in 1472 was appointed Keeper of the Castle of Strome (also called Strone), a MacDonald stronghold on Lochcarron in Ross-shire. This Allan M'Coilduy had he character of one of the bravest captains of his time... He is said to have made 32 expeditions into his enemy's country for the 32 years he lived, and three more, for the three-fourths of a year that he was in his mother's womb... A Cameron raid upon Macintosh's lands, which was thwarted by the duplicity of his neighbor and relative Keppoch, who secretly arranged to help Macintosh by attacking the Camerons in the rear. This led to the defeat of the Camerons, and Allan was killed in the heat of the fray (circa 1480). On account of the frequency of his raids and skirmishes he became known as Allan nan Creach (Allan of the Forays.)

Ewen MacAllan (thirteenth chief), Captain of Clan Cameron, must have succeeded his father, Allan MacDonald Duibh, some time after 1480. He proved equal to any of his predecessors in the vigor of his mind and body, but though in order to facilitate the adjusting matters with Macintosh, he married Marjory, daughter to Duncan, then chief of that name. Yet all his endeavors to bring about an agreement proving ineffectual, the war broke out with more fury than before. Many and bloody were the conflicts between them, and great actions are related on both parties. But the Camerons, being commanded by a Chief who had the advantage of all his neighbors in conduct and spirit, it is no wonder if they proved too hard generally for their enemies.

Ewen built himself a strong house at Torcastle, not on the actual land granted but very close to it, probably on a site where there had been a dwelling or castle for hundreds of years, possibly since the days of Banquo, Thane of Lochaber. Hitherto the Captains of the Clan had had their main residence on Eilean nan Craobh, one of the small islets in Locheil, just off the shore from Corpach.

Ewen was involved in the great Clanranald feud in which John Moidartach, Captain of Clanranald, was engaged in defending his chiefship against Ronald Gallda, the legitimate claimant. Ewen sided with John Moidartach, and Camerons fought alongside MacDonalds at the Battle of Blar na leine in 1544. In this battle, which was fought at the head of Loch Lochy, Ronald Gallda's supporters, the Frasers assisted by the Grants, were nearly annihilated. The battle is said to have earned its name Blar na leine or the Battle of the Shirts, because the day being very hot, the combatants discarded their plaids and fought in their shirts. The MacDonalds and Camerons, profiting by their victory, carried out most successful raids upon the Grant and Fraser lands (known as the Raid of Urquhart), which were incredibly rich and fertile to the Lochaber men.

In 1546...Macintosh, in his capacity of Steward of Lochaber, joined Huntly and laid waste the Cameron country. They apprehended Lochiel and Donald, the son of Donald Glas of Keppoch, and these two were tried (as a result of being implicated in the Earl of Lenox's aspirations, along with the Battle of Blar na leine and the Raid of Urquhart), found guilty, and were beheaded, their heads being fixed over the gates of Elgin in Huntly's country. So died Ewen MacAllan, in many ways one of the greatest Cameron chiefs. He laid the foundations of what eventually became the Lochiel estate as we know it today... Macintosh did not live long enough to enjoy his triumph over the Camerons. Three years later he himself fell foul of Huntly, and was executed on a spurious charge of conspiring against the Earl's life.

Ewen Beag (fourteenth chief), who became captain of the clan on the execution of his illustrious grandfather, inherited little but trouble. The Lochiel lands had been forfeited and granted to Huntly, including the "Fortalice of Torcastell," Glenloy and Locharkaig. The Lochalsh and Lochcarron lands had been forfeited and granted to Grant of Culcabock and Grant of Freuchie respectively as "satisfaction for a spuilzie," that is, to compensate the Grants for their losses in the Raid of Urquhart. He (Ewen) did have a natural son, Donald M'Ewen M'Conell, who became in the annals of the clan as "Taillear dubh na tuaighe" - "The Black Tailor of the Axe."

Some say that Ewen met his death at the hands of Huntly, but Balhaldie gives the traditional story of the birth of the Taillear Dubh and the death of Ewen:

"Of him Ewen Beag I find nothing memorable except his unfortunate death; for being in his younger years much enamored of a daughter of the Laird of MacDonald (M'Dougall) he found the lady so complaisant that she fell with child by him. The father dissembled his resentment, and artfully drew Lochiel to a communing in the Island Nacloich (sic) where, having previously concealed a party of men, he made him prisoner upon refusing to marry her, and shut him up in the Castle of Inch-Connel, in Lochow, a fresh-water lake, at a good distance from Lochaber, to which his friends could not have easy access, on account of the difficulty of providing themselves with boats. As soon as the news came to Lochaber, his clan resolved to hazard all for his relief, and having made necessary preparations, his foster-father, "Martine M'Connochey of Lattir Finlay," chieftain of the "M'Martins," an ancient and numerous tribe of the Camerons, put himself at the head of a chosen party, and soon made himself master of the castle. Lochiel was then playing at cards with his keeper or governor, named MacArthur, and was so overjoyed at his approaching delivery that, observing him much alarmed at the noise made by the assailants, he overhastily discovered the design, for which he paid dear. For MacArthur, to satisfy his own and master's resentment, immediately extinguished the lights and, thrusting his dirk or poinard below the table which stood between them, wounded him in the belly. His deliverers, in the meantime, rushing into his apartment, carried him to their boats where, the night being cold, he called for an oar in order to heat himself by exercise. But, upon stretching for an oar, he became first sensible of his wound, which soon thereafter proved mortal. His party having landed, and put him to bed, returned to the castle and, in revenge of his death, dispatched MacArthur and all the men that were with him."

Ewen Beag, having no legitimate heir, was succeeded by his brother Donald Dubh (fifteenth chief) in 1553. When Queen Mary (Mary, Queen of Scots) came to Scotland she granted the Moray earldom to her half-brother, Lord James Stewart. This was too much for the powerful Huntly to stomach so he rebelled. Raising his vassals, he met the forces of the Queen at the Battle of Corrichy in 1562 and was defeated... Donald Dubh led his clan to join the Queen's forces against Huntly, and in 1564 he was rewarded. The Queen granted a charter...for the lands of Letterfinlay, Stronnabaw, and Lyndalie, formerly held by George, Earl of Huntly, and forfeited. These were the MacMartin lands to the East side of the Lochy, which had been granted to Donald Dubh's grandfather in 1535 by Huntly, but had been forfeited in 1546 when Ewen Allanson was executed.

Donald Dubh married a daughter of Hector Mor Maclean of Duart. There is a mystery as to his death; Gregory states that he was murdered by his own clansmen, and there is some evidence that this may have been the case. With Donald Dubh's death or murder in 1569, the clan sank into a state of anarchy during the minority of Allan, his son, and peace, even if somewhat uneasy, was not restored until Allan became captain in 1577.

Allan (Allan MacDonald Dubh - sixteenth chief) was a child when his father died or was murdered in 1569, and the leadership of the clan devolved upon his tutors, his great-uncles Ewen Cameron of Erracht, and John Cameron of Kinlochiel, both younger sons of Allan's great-grandfather Ewen MacAllan or Allanson, by his second wife Marjory Macintosh. The tutors seem to have been unpopular, certainly with a large section of the clan. So little were they trusted that young Allan was sent for safety to the Isle of Mull to be brought up by his uncle, Hector Og Maclean of Duart. Later, his education was entrusted to Mr. John Cameron, Minister of Dunoon. The tutors, particularly Erracht, the senior one, are said to have taken possession of the Lochiel lands, and to have treated them as if they were their own. Erracht in fact claimed the chiefship for himself. They entered into an agreement with their relative Macintosh regarding the disputed lands which was so detrimental to the interests of the clan that they were forced to repudiate it. This brought upon them the wrath of Macintosh, and so uncertain were they of the support of the clan in opposing him that they had to enlist the help of the Taillear Dubh who, it will be remembered, was the natural son of Ewen Beag of Lochiel, and who, being a near relative to young Allan, and a man of great ability and valor, was trusted and supported by the greater part of the clan. The Taillear Dubh and his followers met the Erracht faction led by Ewen of Erracht's son, Donald Dubh M'Ewen, at Inverlochy Castle where Donald Dubh was murdered by some of the Taillear's men. He (the Taillear Dubh) then took command of the clan until such as Allan could return and command it himself.

Donald M'Ewen M'Connell or Donald MacEwen Bhig, known as the Taillear Dubh na Tuaighe, was one of the clan's most colorful figures. As a child he was nursed by the wife of a tailor who lived at Blar na cleireach, near Lundavra, hence his by-name. Later he was brought up by MacLachlan of Coruanan, head of a tribe who were followers of Lochiel. He became an expert in the use of arms, and was particularly dexterous in the use of the Lochaber Axe, his favorite weapon. He grew up to be a brave and prudent man famed for his wit and sarcasm.

During this interregnum of eight years (1569-1577/8) there are many legends and stories concerning the escapades of the Taillear Dubh and his inveterate animosity towards the Macintoshes. In 1577/78 Allan returned to take command of the clan, but it was not until 1585 that the last of the rebel leaders met his death when John Cameron of Kinlochiel was executed at Dunstaffnage at the instigation of Argyll. As regards the Taillear Dubh, there is a tradition that he went to Cowal and settled in Stratheachaig. His descendants took the name of Macintaillear, later changed to Taylor, and many of that name in Cowal are really Camerons. They were known as Clann an Taillear Dhuibh Chamronaich, and there seems little doubt Taylors descended from the Cowal families of Taylor can claim descent from Donald MacEwen Bhig.

Some years after Allan took command of the clan, the Grants invested Macintosh with the lands of Lochalsh which had belonged to the Camerons, but had been conveyed to the Grants as compensation for the depredations of the "Raid of Urquhart" in 1546. This was bound to be resented by the Camerons, but worse was to follow. In 1598, a commission was granted to Huntly, Macintosh, Grant of Freuchie, and others to apprehend Lochiel and all the chief men of the clan for various crimes they had committed. The commission was ineffective and two years later Allan threw in his lot with Huntly, probably because Huntly was by this time at enmity with Macintosh and the Grants. In an indenture dated 1590/91, Huntly agreed to leave Allan in full possession of his lands on condition that Allan agreed to support him with all his strength and resources. Allan, however, was to be consulted and acquainted with all Huntly's designs. As a result, the Camerons invaded the Macintosh and Grant lands and killed "XLI of Macintoshes and XXIII tenants of Grant, and hurt the Laird of Balendalough." Other affrays followed, in one of which fifty Camerons are said to have been killed. Thus Lochiel, a Protestant, was on the side of Huntly, the great Catholic noble, at the Battle of Glenlivet, where a confederation of Argyll, Atholl, the Forbeses and the Macintoshes was defeated by Huntly and his adherents. Although (Huntly) was in favor with the King, James had to punish him in deference to the popular demand for vengeance by the Presbyterian faction, so that Huntly gained little by his victory, and had to go into temporary exile for a few years. During the years of Huntly's exile and forfeiture, Lochiel found himself a rebel with no one to protect him.

Lochiel's estates were gifted to a courtier, Sir Alexander Hay. Hay split them up and sold the main or Lochielside part to Hector Maclean of Lochbuie...no sale could have been less welcome! The rest of the estate went to various purchasers... Lochiel submitted to the inevitable and took no steps to recover these lands by force, thereby making sure of the friendship of these neighboring chiefs. Lochbuie eventually sold his rights in the Lochiel estate proper to Argyll... He was willing to allow Lochiel to occupy the Lochiel lands, under his superiority, on condition that Lochiel paid him the money which he, Argyll, had paid to Lochbuie! Thus Argyll virtually forced Allan to buy for Argyll a superiority over himself!

Huntly, before his forfeiture, had had control of nearly all of Lochaber, and had been superior of all the Cameron lands. Now he found Argyll controlling the whole of the Cameron lands west of the River Lochy, and he did not like it. It has already been related that there had been a rift in the clan for some time. Huntly, perceiving this, took advantage of it and suborned Alister Cameron of Glennevis and others, promising them feudal independence from Lochiel. Lochiel had to assert his authority at all costs for the loyalty of his clansmen which no King or Government could confer. He arranged a meeting with his disloyal clansmen, but suspecting treachery, made the following plan. He was to meet with them with a few men to discuss terms, but 120 of his most trusted followers were to be hidden in a nearby wood. If treachery was intended and he was attacked, his small party would retreat hastily, and that was the sign for his men to fall upon the enemy in the rear. The plan worked to perfection, and sixteen of the ringleaders, including Alister of Glennevis and John Bodach of Erracht were put to the sword.

Macintosh obtained a new commission to apprehend Lochiel as well as Keppoch and his son...as Macintosh had the King's backing, and had been granted as ample powers as Argyll had for the suppression of the Clan Gregor, Lochiel, knowing that Huntly would resent so much power being placed in the hands of Macintosh, thought the time was ripe for negotiating with Huntly. Lochiel was forced to acknowledge Lord Gordon's rights of ownership, his son John Cameron was to hold the Mamore part of the estate as his vassal. At this time the Camerons faced their most perilous situation for the last hundred years. They had no effective charters for land held direct from the Crown. Argyll was the virtual owner of all their lands west of the Lochy, except for Glenloy and Locharkaig, held on mortgage of Macintosh. Lord Gordon, Huntly's son, owned all those to the east, except those held by John Cameron as his vassal. All this had been forced upon Lochiel to preserve his clan from utter destruction.

Meanwhile Lochiel's son, John Cameron, had been imprisoned in the Tolbooth of Edinburgh as pledge for his father, at Macintosh's instigation. His imprisonment in the Tolbooth affected his health, and his friends managed to get his ward extended to the town of Edinburgh. In due time Macintosh died, and his heir was a minor, whose affairs were handled by Sir John Grant of Freuchie...and as Sir John had no particular interest in the great Macintosh-Cameron feud, and at that time had no enmity towards the Camerons, he soon made arrangements to patch up the old quarrel at least temporarily. The ownership of the disputed lands was put to arbitration, and although the decision of the arbiters was in favor of Macintosh, the Camerons still occupied the lands, but it enabled Allan to make his peace with the government. Sir John, too, got poor John Cameron released from prison, and took him to his own home until such time he could be returned to his father.

Allan Cameron of Lochiel was finally granted a remission or all his past "misdeeds," such as they were, in 1624, and from that time Chief and Clan were at peace except for a few minor raids and disturbances. The most important of these was the Second Raid of Moyness in 1645. Allan must have been a very old man and probably had little to do with it. The Camerons lifted a large number of cattle from the Grant lands of Moyness in Morayshire. Allan MacDonald Dubh died in April, 1647, after what can only be described as a long and stormy life. He was a very old man for he must have been close on 85 years old. There is a fitting memorial to this great Captain of Clan Cameron at Achnacarry, for on the wall of the hall hangs his Great Sword or Claidheamh Mor. On one side of the blade is engraved the name - "Allan Camron of Lochell, 1588"; on the other side the legend -"Spero Dum Spiro." What better motto for this man of action, who was constantly beset by his greedy and powerful neighbors; he was outlawed; was vilified by the King he strove to serve, yet, when fickle fortune had done her worst, contrived by his dauntless courage and sagacity to turn his misfortunes to his ultimate gain.

With the death of Allan MacDonald Dubh, the chief and clan seem to pass from the feuding, fierce, outlaws fighting for survival first one rapacious neighbor, then another; tossed hither and thither first by Huntly, then by Argyll, but forever keeping their precarious grip upon the disputed lands, the very core of the Cameron patriarchal inheritance. It was an accomplishment they could be proud of. With the succession of Ewen Dubh (seventeenth chief), Allan's grandson, they embarked together, he and his clansmen, on a much nobler era.

Ewen Cameron was born in 1629 at Kilchurn Castle, Lochawa, the home of his mother, Margaret, daughter of Sir Robert Campbell of Glenorchy. His father, John Cameron, whose health had suffered on account of his long imprisonment, died about 1635. His grandfather, Allan, hero of many affrays, was chief of the clan but was too old to bring up his grandson, so Ewen was brought up first by his foster father, Duncan MacMartin of Letterfinlay, and later by his uncle, Donald Cameron of Glendessary. When Ewen was 12 Argyll took a hand in his education. Both as feudal superior and as a relation, he was determined that he should be brought up in an atmosphere friendly to his designs, and to give the devil his due, he did faithfully carry out his intentions giving him an excellent education at Inveraray under the charge of a special teacher. These were stirring days in Scotland. It was the eve of the Civil War. Argyll was to lead the army of the Covenant; Montrose the army of the King. The first impact of the War upon young Ewen was the great Battle of Inverlochy of 1645, when the chief, old Allan Cameron, then nearly 90 years of age, though unable to fight himself, sent 300 Camerons to Montrose's army, and, some say, warned Montrose of Argyll's presence at Inverlochy, and arranged for guides to take the army secretly by little known paths to a position from which they could (most successfully) attack Argyll's forces.

After the disastrous Battle of Philiphaugh, which resulted in the defeat of Montrose and the collapse of the Royal cause in Scotland, Argyll, accompanied by Ewen, went to St. Andrews to attend a meeting of the Estates called to try and condemn their Royalist prisoners... Ewen contrived to gain access to some of the prisoners without the knowledge of his guardian. These men, awaiting their doom with calm courage, had a profound effect on the young man. The next day, with Argyll, he witnessed the execution of the prisoners with disgust and horror. If the sight was intended to frighten him or to ensure his support for the Covenant, it was signally unsuccessful; from that day he was a Royalist and from that choice he never swerved.

In 1647, at the age of 18, the year his grandfather died, he left Argyll's tutelage to return to his clan and to his own country. The Camerons received him with universal rejoicing, coming a day's journey to meet him. The first engagement led by Lochiel on taking over the leadership of the clan was against his neighbor Keppoch who, thinking he had to deal with a callow youth, refused to pay an annuity on a mortgage due to Lochiel. Ewen raised several hundred of his clansmen and marched upon Keppoch, who, seeing the determination of the Camerons and that they were well led, considered discretion the better part of valor and settled the matter amicably.

In 1650 he received a letter from King Charles II summoning him to raise his clan and join the Royal army at Stirling. He experienced some difficulty in raising sufficient men for many of his clansmen lived under Argyll's ad Huntly's superiority and not his own...eventually he received a commission to raise his clan wherever they might live. It was spring of 1652 before he was in a position to leave Lochaber. By that time the Scots had lost the Battle of Inverkeithing, and Charles had departed with his army on the fatal march to Worchester. Perhaps fortunately, Ewen was not involved in these events, and thus escaped the fate of many of Charles's Scottish soldiers; death or imprisonment.

In 1652 he led his clan to join the Earl of Glencairn's army which was holding out in the Eastern Highlands against Cromwell's occupying army. Glencairn was encamped at Tullich in Braemar, and he gave the Camerons the honor of acting as outpost to the main army. Ewen took up an excellent position in a steep pass which commanded the approach of the main army's encampment. The next day his scouts reported the approach of the English army, and Ewen, having sized up the situation, sent word to Glencairn who had plenty of time to move his troops to an almost impregnable position behind a morass, where the English cavalry could not attack him. Lochiel meantime was able to hold up the English advance, for the pass was so narrow and so steep that Colonel Lilburn, the English commander, could not deploy his force, and Lochiel was able to inflict heavy casualties on the enemy without incurring many himself, and held up the advance for many hours. Eventually he received orders to retire and make his way back to Glencairn's army. He extricated his men with great skill and few losses, and was congratulated by his commander on his return. The success of this action laid the foundations of his fame as a military leader, and gained for him the confidence and devotion of his clansmen. For his outstanding service he received a letter of commendation from King Charles...

Ewen and the clan took part in several other fights and skirmishes while serving with Glencairn, until 1654 General Middleton took over the command of the Royalist forces. In that year command of the English army was assumed by General George Monk, whose policy was to keep Middleton's forces hemmed into the Highlands, where supplies of food, ammunition and money, were extremely difficult. Middleton's forces gradually began to disintegrate, and effective resistance came to an end. Monk was appointed Governor of Scotland, and as part of his policy for the Highlands he planned to erect forts at various strategic points...the fort which concerned the Camerons was to be sited at Inverlochy, with the express intention of controlling the Lochaber clans...as Lochiel was still with Middleton, they landed at Inverlochy and erected their fortifications without opposition. The Camerons were taken by surprise, but Lochiel, hurrying back to Lochaber, determined to make the occupation of the fort as costly as possible. When Lochiel saw how far the work on the fort had progressed he realized that an attack in force was out of the question. He therefore dismissed his clansmen...he and 32 of his bravest young men as a bodyguard, took up quarters near Achdalieu and awaited their chance. He had spies working in the fort, and they kept him informed of the movements of the garrison.

One day a working party was sent out by Colonel Brayne (or Bryan), a commander of the fort...it was decided to attack the party which numbered 138. A lively battle followed. The Englishmen, having fired their muskets too soon, were unable to reload before the Camerons were among them. Their clumsy muskets were no match for the broadsword and targe, and the Camerons, although so desperately outnumbered, were, after a stiff fight, able to put the soldiers to flight. Lochiel got separated from his men and found himself faced by an English officer who, ashamed of his men's defeat, was determined to kill him. Balhaldie describes the tussle thus:

"The combat was long and doubtful; both fought for their lives; and as they were both animated by the same fury and courage, so they seemed to manage their swords with the same dexterity. The English gentleman had by far the advantage in strength and size, but Lochiel exceeding him in nimbleness and agility, in the end tript the sword out of his hand. But he was not allowed to make use of this advantage; for his antagonist flying upon him with incredible quickness, they inclosed and wrestled till both fell to the ground in other's arms. In this posture they struggled, and tumbled up and down till they fixed in the channel of a brook, between two straight banks, which then, by the drought of the summer, chanced to be dry. Here Lochiel was in a most dismal and desperate situation; for being undermost, he was not only crushed under the weight of his antagonist (who was an exceedingly big man), but likewise sore hurt, and bruised by the many sharp stones that were below him. Their strength was so far spent, that neither of them could stir a limb; but the English gentleman, by the advantage of being uppermost, at last recovered the use of his right hand. With it he seized a dagger that hung at his belt, and made several attempts to stab his adversary, who all the while held him fast; but the narrowness of the place where they were confined, and the posture they were in, rendering the execution very difficult, and almost impracticable, while he was so straitly embraced, he made a most violent effort to disengage himself; and in that action, raising his head and stretching his neck, Lochiel, who by this had his hands at liberty, with his left suddenly seized him by the right, and with the other by the collar, and jumping at his extended throat, which he used to say 'God put in his mouth' he bit it quite through, and kept such a hold of his grip, that he brought away a mouthful! This, he said, as the sweetest bite ever he had in his lifetime!"

Probably, shortly before this, Lochiel built his new house at Achnacarry. The tradition is that he found his home at Torcastle uncomfortably near the garrison at Inverlochy, so he decided that a residence in a remoter part of his country would be more secure. Buchanan of Auchmar, writing in 1723, describes the house thus, "Lochiel's principal residence is in Achnacarry in Lochaber, where he hath a large house, all built of Fir-planks, the handsomest of that kind in Britain."

After Oliver Cromwell's death in 1658, his son Richard Cromwell proved himself quite incapable of emulating his great father in the government of England, and controlling the rival generals and their followers. General Monk therefore led his army South to London, without meeting and serious opposition, and the English, having elected a Parliament, invited Charles to return to the country. In 1660 he was restored to the throne of Scotland and ascended the throne of England as King Charles II.

In September, 1665, things came to a head. Macintosh, with 1500 men of Clan Chattan and their adherents, invaded the disputed lands, and took up a position to the North of the River Arkaig in what is now known as the Caig Parks. Lochiel, who had had ample warning, raised his clan, and with the assistance of the Glencoe men and some MacGregor volunteers, faced him with 1000 men on the Achnacarry side of the river at a spot called at that time the Fords of Arkaig. A battle to end all Cameron-Macintosh battles seemed imminent. John Campbell, Glenorchy's heir, later to be created Earl of Breadalbane, appeared on the scene with 300 of his clan, and made it quite plain that he would come in on the side of whichever clan was attacked first...by this devise he managed to get Macintosh to agree to the same terms as he had refused two years before. On the 19th September, "Macintosh marched up to the Clunes, where there was a minute of contract drawn up and subscribed by both parties wherein Macintosh was obliged to sell his lands of Glenluie an Loch Arkaig to Lochiel... Upon the 20th of September 1665, Lochiel having crossed the water of Arkaig, Macintosh and he met (24 men on each side) upon the lands of Clunes, and having drunk together in a friendly manner, in a token of perfect reconciliation, exchanged swords, and so departed, having in all probability at that time, taken away the old feud which, with great hatred and cruelty, continued betwixt their forebearers for the space of 360 years." Thus ended the great feud between the two clans; the bloodiest feud ever known in the Highlands; a feud which had raged almost continuously for 360 years! The agreement was signed on the 20th September, 1665. It was said that no Cameron had ever shaken a Macintosh hand till that day.

In 1682 Lochiel was in Edinburgh where he had the good fortune to meet His Royal Highness, the Duke of York. Balhaldie gives an account of the meeting. After complimenting him on the successful outcome of his affairs with Macintosh, he asked for Lochiel's sword, and attempted to draw it, "but it would not do for the sword it seems was somewhat rusty, and but little used as being a walking sword, which the Highlanders never make use of in their own country." The Duke, after a second attempt, gave it back to Lochiel with the compliment "that his sword never used to be so uneasy to draw when the Crown wanted his services." Lochiel then drew the sword and handed it back to the Duke who thereupon knighted him.

As ill luck would have it, the Camerons became involved in the ancient feud between Macintosh and Keppoch. Sir Ewen was away in London when Keppoch called upon his friends and neighbors, the Camerons, for help. The MacDonalds defeated the Macintoshes at the Battle of Mulroy (1688), the last major clan battle in the Highlands. A warrant was issued for Sir Ewen's arrest while he was in Edinburgh, for he was considered responsible for the actions of his clan, and it was well known that Keppoch could not have defeated Macintosh without the help of the Camerons. Lochiel determined to avoid arrest, resorted to a typical ruse. He visited a friend in the Tolboth, the last place he judged his enemies would look for him and, as the chief clerk was a Cameron, he naturally assisted his chief to get clear of the town. In no time he was safe amid his own clan in Lochaber.

In 1689 several of the most important men in England invited William of Orange, who had married King James's daughter Mary, and was a Protestant, to become King of England. King James was a Roman Catholic, and they suspected that he wanted to introduce Roman Catholicism as the established religion in England. William of Orange landed with a small army and King James, who was deserted by his friends in his hour of need, fled to France.

The Highlanders...were on the whole sympathetic to the King, so that when John Graham of Claverhouse, Viscount Dundee, raised the Royal standard for King James, most of the Highland chiefs joined him, largely through the influence of Sir Ewen. A force of about 1800 men and a few horses had joined Dundee when he heard that General MacKay was advancing towards Inverness, so he determined to intercept him near Blair Atholl, and, in spite of disparity in numbers, to bring him to battle. Many of the clans, including 500 of the Camerons had not arrived, and Dundee ordered them to follow with all haste. The Battle of Killiecrankie (July 27th, 1689) was fought and won by the Highlanders fighting in their traditional way, but in the hour of victory Dundee was killed. He had depended much on Sir Ewen's advice and wide experience of Highland warfare in the conduct of the battle. 500 of the Clan Cameron under Sir Ewen's eldest son, John, and his cousin Glendessary, arrived two days after the battle. With the death of Dundee, King James's cause was lost.

Sir Ewen Cameron of Lochiel, or Eoghain Dubh, as the Highlanders called him, has come down as one of the greatest Highland chiefs of all time. As a chief he was loved, trusted and admired by his clansmen, who would follow him into any exploit whatever the odds or danger. In peacetime he worked unceasingly for the independence of his clan, and for the improvement of the conditions under which they lived. As a soldier he was quite fearless for his own safety. He was an outstanding planer of guerrilla operations and leader in battle. He understood the temperament of the men under his command, and he knew how to get the best out of them. His experience made him a wise counselor to those who he served. Sir Ewen died in 1719 in his 90th year.

John Cameron of Lochiel (eighteenth chief), the eldest son of Sir Ewen, was born about 1663. His first "appearance" on the historical scene was as leader of the clan after the Battle of Killiecrankie, after his father had returned to Lochaber. After Sir Ewen made his submission in 1692 he took little part in the affairs of the country, and four years later he made over the greater part of his estate to his son John. In 1706 John Cameron, appreciating the dangers he was likely to incur as a known Jacobite sympathizer, deemed it advisable to make over his estate to his young son Donald. This was a wise precaution for when later he was attained for his participation in the 1715 rising, the estate could not be forfeited for it no longer legally belonged to him.

The part played by the Camerons in this sorry affair (The 1715 Jacobite Rebellion) was not noteworthy. John Cameron of Lochiel had great difficulty in raising the clan. John Cameron did march, with a part of the clan, to join an unsuccessful expedition to harry the Campbell country round Inveraray under General Gordon of Auchintoul but nothing was achieved, and the General's small force joined the main army mustering at Auchterarder prior to the Battle of Sheriffmuir.

John Cameron was attainted and had to flee to France. In 1717 King James showed his appreciation of John Cameron's services by creating him a peer with the title of Lord Lochiel. The title does not appear to have caught on, or have been in common use. The old saying "The King can make a Duke, but he cannot make a Lochiel" would seem to be appropriate.

Donald Cameron of Lochiel (nineteenth chief), younger of Lochiel, "Young Lochiel" as he was often called to differentiate between him and his father who was in exile, was a young man of 21 when in 1716 he succeeded to the management of his estates and the leadership of his clan. He was an enlightened chief whose main interest was in the improvement of his estates, the improvement of the lot of his clansmen, and the stamping out of the universal practice of lifting cattle from neighboring clans, and further afield.

On the 25th of July, 1745, the Prince (Charles Edward Stuart - "Bonnie Prince Charlie") landed on the Scottish mainland at Loch nan Uamh in Arisaig, accompanied by a handful of supporters; the Seven Men of Moidart. The Prince sent young MacDonald of Scotus to inform Lochiel of his arrival and summoned him to come and see him at once. When Charles met Lochiel he was fully aware of how much depended on his support, for he was one of the most influential chiefs and had a large following.

The 19th August was an anxious day for the Prince. Few of the clansmen had rallied to Glenfinnan until four o'clock in the afternoon when to his delight he saw the Camerons approaching with pipers playing and banners waving. Lochiel's 800 Camerons were closely followed by 300 of Keppoch's MacDonalds, so that with Clanranald's men already there, there were close on 1300 men. Two days after the raising of the standard the army marched Eastwards to Kinlochiel where the Prince, having heard that King George had issued a proclamation offering 30,000 pounds for his capture, immediately issued a counter proclamation offering a like sum for the apprehension of the Elector of Hanover.

...the advance to Edinburgh was resumed as far as Corstorphine which was reached on the 16th September. Here Lochiel was given orders to have his clan under arms, ready to move at a moment's notice to force an entry into Edinburgh. Shortly after three in the morning Lochiel and his men, consisting of his clan, and detachments from Clanranald's, Glengarry's and Keppoch's regiments, started out on this risky enterprise. The gate of the Netherbow Port was firmly closed and daylight was fast approaching. It looked as though the attempt was to fail when, as good luck would have it, a coach...was required to pass through the Port in order to return to the stables. In an instant, led by Lochiel, the Highlanders rushed through, overpowered the guard, and poured into the High Street...thus did the Highlanders gain possession of Edinburgh.

The Prince stayed camped in Edinburgh, the army being encamped at Duddingston, until the 20th September, when the whole force marched out to meet Sir John Cope's army which had landed at Dunbar. The armies were numerically matched, each side having about 2,500 men...the battle (the Battle of Prestonpans) was won by the Highlanders in less than half an hour. Cope's casualties in the ensuing rout were very heavy, and the Highlanders gained invaluable weapons, supplies and booty...

The Prince and his victorious army returned to Edinburgh after the Battle of Prestonpans, rested, and received reinforcements, then on 1st November set out on the ill-fated march into England. About 650 Camerons formed part of the Highland army, and remained with the Prince throughout the long march to Derby, and the subsequent retreat, taking part in all the skirmishes and battles, except that of Clifton.

The Battle of Falkirk was fought on the 17th January. It was Prestonpans all over again. Hawley's much vaunted regular troops fled before the Highlanders' wild charge and the cold steel of their broadswords. Had the chiefs been able to rally their men after the first impact, and been able to pursue the enemy, the victory would have been of far greater consequence. As it was many of their troops escaped, demoralized but unharmed. Lochiel was wounded in the foot during the battle, and his brother Doctor Archibald, who was assisting him was struck by a shot "which entered his body, where it remained during the remainder of his life." Neither were seriously wounded, for it did not prevent them taking part in all the subsequent events.

In March the Camerons and other Western clans were ordered to proceed to Fort William, and attempt to capture the fort. As the capture of Fort William was not likely to be achieved mainly owing to the lack of any heavy siege artillery, the Jacobite force was ordered to repair to Inverness, and there rejoin the main army. They arrived just in time to take part in the disastrous Battle of Culloden.

The bulk of the Highland army was in an exhausted condition. They had marched for two days without food; they had lain out without any cover in the bitterly cold weather the night before the battle. However valiant, exhausted hungry men cannot be expected to engage in battle with any hope of success against fresh, well fed troops. When the right wing of the Jacobite army, consisting of the Camerons, the Stewarts of Appin, and the Athollmen, went into the attack, the left wing, consisting of the MacDonalds, held back. The result was that the right wing came under fire from both flanks. Charging in the traditional Highland manner, sword in hand, they broke through Barrel's and Munro's regiments, but being subjected to heavy rifle and cannon fire from the front and from the flanks, and then from fire of the second line of the enemy, the impetus of their charge was exhausted before the left wing were engaged. Having suffered very heavy casualties they were forced to retreat. The battle was over in less than an hour. Lochiel, advancing at the head of his regiment "was so near Barrel's that he had fired his pistol and was drawing his sword when he fell wounded with grape shot in both ankles..."

Lochiel and his small party were able to make their way back to Lochaber. The clan, with their remaining officers, found their way with the surviving part of the Highland army to Ruthven in Badenoch, where they received orders to disperse to their own country. The chiefs met at Murlaggan...and it was arranged that they should muster at Achnacarry with as many men as they could gather on the 15th May. The day for the muster was delayed a week, but when the day came only 200 Camerons, a few Macleans, and 120 MacDonalds showed up. Thus the last hope of resistance faded. The next day a strong detachment of the enemy approached, and on the 28th May, Lochiel's beautiful house was burned to the ground.

After witnessing the destruction of his home and country, Lochiel and his party made their way to Sunart...then moved to a small island in Lochshiel...and eventually to Appin, a country which at that time was free of enemy troops. There they were concealed by Stewart of Ardsheal for some days after which Lochiel and Sir Stuart Threipland left for the Brae of Rannoch where they met Cluny and went with him to his hiding place on Ben Alder. It was not until 15th August that the Prince made his way back to Lochaber...here the Prince found out that Lochiel was hiding with Cluny on Ben Alder. At last after more than four months the Prince met Lochiel, who was living in a very small sheil hut near the foot of Ben Alder. On the 18th September Lochiel left Cameron country for ever. They made their way to Borrodale and embarked on the Le Conti on the 19th, a little over five months since their wandering had started after the disaster of Culloden.

The finale of this tragic episode can only be touched on briefly. The Prince obtained for Lochiel the command of the French regiment, "Le Regiment d'Albanie," as some compensation for ruin; this kept the wolf from the door. The "Gentle Lochiel" died at Borgue (Bergues) in France on the 28th October, 1748, aged 53. No doubt his life was cut short by the physical exertions endured during the campaign, and by the mental suffering engendered by his noble feeling of responsibility for the sufferings of his people.

Of all the Camerons who risked their all in the Stuart cause, the most tragic fate awaited Lochiel's brother, Archibald. In 1753 Doctor Archie was sent on his second, and as it turned out, disastrous visit (back to Scotland, concerning the disposal of the famed "Treasure of Loch Arkaig.") He reached the Highlands, and while staying secretly at Brenachyle on Lochkatrineside...he was arrested. Doctor Archie was charged under the Act of Attainder as having taken part in the rising seven years earlier. The Doctor was tried and sentenced to death. On 7th June, 1753, Doctor Archie was drawn on a sledge to Tyburn, where Marble Arch now stands, and surrounded by a gaping but sympathetic crowd, he met his death with great bravery and resolution. He was in his 46th year.

Donald Cameron...was succeeded by his eldest son John (twentieth chief), who was a boy of 16 at that time. In 1759 John Cameron returned to Scotland. His estates were still forfeited, but he was able to live in his native land because he had not been involved in the Rising. He died unmarried in Edinburgh in 1762. His next brother James, a captain in the Royal Regiment of Scots, having died in 1759, he was succeeded by his youngest brother Charles.

Charles Cameron (twenty-first chief) was gazetted ensign in the 30th Regiment of Foot in 1765, when the regiment was stationed at Gibraltar. He was promoted Lieutenant in 1771, and transferred to the 71st or Fraser Highlanders when that regiment was raised in 1775. He recruited and commanded a company of 120 men drawn from his own clan. He had obtained a lease of the Glendessary portion of the Annexed Estate of Lochiel on easy terms from the Government, so that he evidently knew and was known in Lochaber. When in the following year the 71st was ordered to proceed to America, Lochiel, who did not enjoy good health, was ill in London. There he heard that his company refused to embark without him, so he insisted on traveling to Glasgow, the port of embarkment. When he arrived there he received a great welcome... Lochiel died a few weeks later, in 1776.

When Donald Cameron (twenty-second chief, son of Charles Cameron) of Lochiel succeeded to the chiefship in 1776, the social upheaval which was to revolutionize life in the Highlands was imminent. He succeeded at the age of 7, and eight years later the Lochiel estate, which as we have seen, had been annexed to the Crown, was returned to him, subject to a fine. In 1799, at the time of the threatened Napoleonic invasion, Lochiel was appointed Colonel of a regiment of Fencibles to be raised in the North of Scotland, and to be called "The Lochaber Fencible Highlanders." Most of the men came from Lochaber; many of the officers and men being of his own clan. Having been quartered in Ireland for two years they were disbanded in 1802, the danger of invasion having passed. Having no suitable residence at Achnacarry, Lochiel decided to build a new house which he started in 1802. Lochiel died at Toulouse in France in 1832.

Donald Cameron (twenty-third chief, eldest son of Donald Cameron) of Lochiel was born in 1796. He was educated at Harrow, the first of a succession of Lochiels to be educated there. In 1814 he was gazetted to the Grenadier Guards, and fought with his regiment at the Battle of Waterloo. He retired from the army on the death of his father and his succession to the estate in 1832. Donald Cameron succeeded at a time when the whole economy of the estate had been drastically altered. As we have seen the small tenants and cottars had been replaced by large sheep farmers employing a small number of shepherds. From being a peasant economy it had changed to a pastoral economy. In 1837, Lochiel, who had no residence on his estate, arranged to have the new Achnacarry, started in 1802 by his father, completed, and thereafter he lived there in the summer months. Lochiel died in England in 1858, and was buried at his wife's home at Hampden, Buckinghamshire.

Donald Cameron (twenty-fourth chief, eldest son of Donald Cameron) of Lochiel was born in 1835 and educated at Harrow. As a young man he entered the Diplomatic Service, and was appointed 1st attache in Lord Elgin's mission to China in 1857, and afterwards to the embassy at Berlin. He succeeded to the chiefship on his father's death in 1858, and after a few years retired from the foreign office service and went to live at Achnacarry to manage his vast estates. In 1868 he was elected Conservative Member of Parliament for Inverness-shire, a seat he held for the next seventeen years. This Lochiel was the first chief to make Achnacarry his permanent home since that day in September 1746 when "The Gentle Lochiel" took his last look at the burnt out ruins of old Achnacarry; over 100 years before.

Lochiel had become one of the biggest sheep farmers in the North. Many of his shepherds and stalkers were Camerons; practically all the crofters were descendants of the old clansmen removed from the glens to make way for sheep farming during the period 1800 to 1850. But the bulk of the clan were scattered throughout the world; in Canada, Australia, America, and New Zealand, and in every part of Scotland and England. It was in 1889 that a small body of enthusiastic Camerons, inspired by their inborn pride in their race and its romantic history, decided to form a Clan Cameron Association. Naturally Lochiel was its chief. Lochiel was appointed Lord Lieutenant of Inverness-shire in 1887, a post he held until his death in 1905.

Donald Walter Cameron (twenty-sixth chief, eldest son of Donald Cameron) of Lochiel was born in 1876. Like his father and grandfather he was educated at Harrow, and in 1898 was gazetted to his grandfather's regiment, the Grenadier Guards. He saw service in the South African War being severely wounded at the Battle of Belmont in 1902. He succeeded to the chiefship in 1905 on the death of his father. The next year Lochiel married Lady Hermione Emily Graham, youngest daughter of the 5th Duke of Montrose, K.T., and retired from the army and went to live at Achnacarry. In 1912 Lochiel was appointed to command the 3rd Bn. The Cameron Highlanders. A few days after the outbreak of the war in 1914 Lord Kitchener asked him to raise a new battalion himself by personal appeal...having recruited a whole brigade, Lochiel returned to command this own battalion, the 5th, which he had been appointed to command. On 10th May, 1915, the battalion embarked for France. On 30th June they went into battle for the first time, and thereafter were engaged in all the major battles of the War. After Loos, 25th September, 1916, where the 5th suffered very heavy casualties, Lochiel had to relinquish his command being invalided home. In 1920 he was appointed Aide-de-Camp to King George V. After the War Lochiel returned to his active life in his county of Lochaber. In 1939 Lochiel was appointed Lord Lieutenant of Inverness-shire, but the crowning honor of his career had come to him in 1934, when the King created him a Knight of the Thistle in recognition of his great services to his country and to the Highlands in particular; the first Knighthood to be conferred upon a Lochiel since Sir Ewen Dubh was knighted by James, Duke of York, in 1682. Further recognition of his services came to him in 1948, when the degree of Hon. LL.D. was conferred upon him by Glasgow University. Lochiel died and was buried at Achnacarry in 1951.

Donald Hamish Cameron (twenty-sixth chief, eldest son of Donald Walter Cameron) the present chief, was born in 1910. He was educated at Harrow and Balliol College, Oxford. Realizing that the future of land and farming in the Highlands was by no means secure, and in order to retain the Lochiel estate in the Lochiel family, and as Cameron lands, he saw that he would have to have outside financial resources, so he became a chartered accountant and embarked on a business career. In 1939 he married Margaret, daughter of Colonel the Hon. Nigel Gathorne-Hardy, brother of the Earl of Cranbrook.

Lochiel had been commissioned in the Lovat Scouts in 1929, and on the outbreak of the war in 1939 he joined his regiment on mobilization, and served with it throughout the Italian Campaign, thus worthily carrying on the military traditions of his family. When Lochiel's father died in 1951, he decided that his place must be at Achnacarry, so he had to throw up his appointment in London. However, his experience and capabilities were such that he was soon in demand to serve on the boards of several companies so that his business training stood him in good stead.

Lochiel is Lord-Lieutenant of Inverness-shire by his appointment in 1971; he thus becomes the third generation of Lochiels to represent their Sovereign in the county. He is Colonel of the 4/5 Battalion, the Cameron Highlanders T.A.; a battalion which he commanded from 1954 to 1956. He is county councillor for Kilmallie on Inverness County Council. His business interests constantly take him to London and Edinburgh, but every weekend finds him back at Achnacarry supervising the various projects on his estate, which still extends to over 100,000 acres (in 1971) and ever ready to welcome members of the clan to the land of the Camerons. In November 1973, the Queen created Lochiel a Knight of the Thistle in recognition of his services to his country.

Donald Angus, Younger of Lochiel (eldest son of Donald Hamish Cameron) was born in 1946. In 1974 he married Lady Cecil Kerr, 2nd daughter of the 12th Marquess of Lothia. They have one son, Donald Andrew born 1976, and three daughters; Catherine Mary born 1975, Lucy Margot born 1980, and Emily Francis born 1986. Looking to the future, young Donald Angus of Lochiel is following in his father's footsteps in embarking on a business career. We wish him well. To him, in due course, will pass the trust of preserving the Cameron lands for future generations, and ensuring that the great traditions of the race shall endure.

Name Variations:  Camerario, Camerarius, Chalmers, Chambers, Chlerich, Chlery, Clark, Clarke, Clarkson, Cleary, Cleireach, Clerk, Cummings (of Achdalieu), Dowie, Gibbon, Gilbert, Gilbertson, Gillonie, Kennedy (of Lianachan), Leary, Lonie, Mac a' Chlerich, Mac a' Cleireach, MacAldowie, MacAlonie, Mac an Taillear, MacChlery, MacChlerich, MacClair, MacClear, MacGillery, MacGillonie, MacGuillonie, MacIldowie, MacKail, MacKell, MacKenzie (of Onich and Ballachulish), MacKildowie, MacLachlan (of Coruanan), MacLear, MacLeary, MacLerie, MacMartin, MacMasters (of Corrybeg), MacMhaolain, MacMillan (of Murlaggan and Caillich), MacOnie, MacOstrich, MacOuildowy, MacPhail, MacPhee (of Glendessary), MacSorley, MacSorlie, MacUlric, MacUlrig, MacVail, MacVaile, MacVaill, MacVale, MacVee (of Glendessary), MacWalrick, Martin, Martinus, Paul, Sorley, Sorlie, Stronach, Taillear (of Cowal), Tayler (of Cowal), Taylor (of Cowa), Cameron.

One or more of the following publications has been referenced for this article.
The General Armory; Sir Bernard Burke - 1842.
A Handbook of Mottoes; C.N. Elvin - 1860.
Scottish Clans and Tartans; Neil Grant - 2000.
Scottish Clan and Family Encyclopedia; George Way of Plean and Romilly Squire - 1994.
Scottish Clans and Tartans; Ian Grimble - 1973.
World Tartans; Iain Zaczek - 2001.
Clans and Families of Scotland; Alexander Fulton - 1991.


Ancient Erracht

Modern Erracht

Weathered Erracht

Ancient Hgt

Weathered Hgt

Modern Lochiel

Weathered Lochiel


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