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Johnson


Coat of Arms


The name Johnson was brought to England in the great wave of migration following the Norman Conquest of 1066. It comes from the given name John and the name literally means "son of John." The given name John is derived from the Hebrew name Johanan, which means "Jehovah has favored." The name was extremely popular in the Middle Ages as a result of the numerous connections between the name John and .....


Heraldry Database: O��gallagher

O��Gallagher







Surname:  O��Gallagher
Branch:  O'Gallagher
Origins:  Irish
More Info:  Ireland

Background:  The clan hails from the barony of Tirhugh ("land of Hugh") near Ballyshannon, County Donegal, Ireland. The derivation of the surname Gallagher is "foreign help" or "foreign helper" from the Irish gall meaning "stranger" and cobhair meaning "help". It is a matter of conjecture whether this appellation denoted merely an ally of strangers from other parts or, as has been suggested, more particularly a collaborator with the Norsemen, who were in those days raiding the coast of north west Ireland. The family's origins are with the chieftain Aodh, a name corresponding to the English Hugh (whence Tirhugh), a lineal descendant of Conall Gulban son of 5th century High King and warlord Niall Nogallach, known in English as Niall of the Nine Hostages, who is reputed to have brought St Patrick to Ireland as a slave. Aodh established his dunarus or residence at a place corresponding to the present day townland of Glassbolie in Tirhugh. The chieftains of his line ruled in relative peace for several generations until the arrival of the Vikings in Donegal Bay in the 9th century.


Motto:  Buaidh no bas, Victory or Death.
Arms:  Argent a lion rampant sable treading on a serpent in fess proper between eight trefoils vert.
Crest:  A crescent gules out of the horns a serpent erect proper.


View the Heraldry Dictionary for help.






The name of the sept, signifies descendant of Gallchobar or Gallagher (about 950 A.D.), who was himself descended from Maolchobha, King of Ireland who reigned from 642-654. The O'Gallaghers claim to be the senior and most loyal family of the Cenal Conaill (kindred of Conal Ghulban), son of Nial Nigiallach "of the Nine Hostages," - who was high king at Tara circa 450 AD.

The clan's territory extended over a wide area in the northern baronies of Raphoe and Tirhugh, Co. Donegal. The principle branch of the sept were seated at Ballyneit and Ballynaglack.

The Gallagher's are consistently mentioned as one of the leading septs of the Tr Chonaill, along with the Baoighill (Boyle), the Dochartaigh (Doherty) and Mac Suibhne (MacSweeny). These families are cited as being the pillars on which the lords of Tr Chonaill built their military strength, in particular the ruling Domhnaill (Donnell) dynasty. The O'Gallagher chiefs were notable as marshals of O'Donnell's military forces in the fourteenth to the sixteenth centuries, and took a prominent part in all the military movements of Cenl Conaill. Hart lists them as the O'Donnell's cavalry, and some personal histories refer to them as the gallglaigh (gallowglass) of the O'Donnells.

True to the often contradictory nature of Irish history, Gallagher's were often mentioned as confidants to kings of the Domhnaill and other leading clans such as the Desmond, but almost as often became bitter enemies of the same (The O'Donnells were one of the two major clans of northern Ireland, the other being the O'Neils).

Though the U Ghallchobhair were originally members of the warrior class in Irish society, they soon gained prominent roles as clergy later on. The sept is most noted in early Irish history for producing a goodly number of Catholic Bishops, more so than any other surname in Ireland. To this day Gallaghers are often found as clergy for the Catholic church, as well as many other religions.

Gallagher, usually without its prefix O, is one of the commonest names in Ireland being fourteenth in the statistical list compiled from birth registrations. Gallagher is pronounced "Gallaher" in Ireland and "Gallager" in America. Most of Gallaghers were recorded in the north-western counties of Ulster and Connacht, the majority being from Co. Donegal, the original homeland of the sept. The national records show them to have been even more intimately connected with ecclesiastical than military activities. No less than six O'Gallaghers were bishops of Raphoe in the fifteenth and and sixteenth centures and one in the eighteenth. One of these, Laurence O'Gallagher, who held the see from 1466-1477, was anything but a saintly prelate, while on the other hand Most Rev. Redmond O'Gallagher (1521-1601), Bishop of Derry, the prelate who befriended the survivors of the Spanish Armada and was forced to disguise himself as a shepherd in order to escape the prevailing religious persecution, was eventually captured and became one of our Irish Catholic martyrs. A later Bishop of Raphoe, and afterwards of Ossory, Most Rev. James O'Gallagher (1681-1751) was famous for his sermons (usually preached in Irish), which, when published, ran to twenty editions. In America Father Hugh Gallagher (1815-1882), had a most colourful career as a "frontier priest". William Davis Gallagher (1808-1894), American poet, was the son of an Irish refugee who took part in Robert Emmet's Rebellion.

The breakup of the clann as a cohesive ruling family seems to have begun at least by the 1500s when some factions remained loyal to the Domhnaill and some opposed them, the opposition becoming quite bitter at times, complete with murder and mystique on the part of both families. In an early 1600s plantation census some families were even listed as being members of the Protestant church or Ireland, evidence of a real split in the family. In 1607 five U Ghallchobhair left with the earls from Rathmullen (the famous "flight of the earls," I believe) for the Spanish Netherlands. Those that stayed behind during the plantation of Ulster faired rather badly under the ruthless rule of the British crown.

The surname Gallagher in Old Irish is Gallchobhair and is composed, in typical Old Irish naming patterns, of two descriptive words which would describe the bearer's character, personality or physical characteristics. The name dates as far back as 800 A.D. or earlier during the Viking Era of Irish history, and means "foreign helper." In the era the name originated, the word gall was used almost exclusively in northern Ireland to reference to the finghall (lit. "fair foreigners"), or the Norsemen (aka Vikings). Fr. Walsh says flatly that the surname is descriptive of Norse foreigners in the region, which were quite common during this period. The word cabhair means help, succor, aid or assist. In the sense it was being used, it most likely refers to military help. Thus, a person with the name Ghallcobhar would be a "foreign helper," most likely a warrior in league with the northern chiefs of the era.

During this period in history (ca 750-850 A.D.), the Danes ( dubhghall) were aggressively moving northward in Europe, displacing Norse land owners and aristocracy. They also began raiding the coasts of Ireland. Displaced Norsemen were common in the Hebrides and Ireland, since they had been trading partners for quite some time. The Viking methods of warring were much more brutal and savage than the insular Celts of Ireland, and the northern chiefs needed skilled warriors to help them defend their lands and cattle from Viking raiders -- i.e., "foreign help," or Gallchobhairs.

About 1,000 A.D. legend has it that King Brian Boru decreed all Irish nobility take surnames. It is written in some accounts that some of the warrior caste of the Domhnaill (O'Donnell) took upon them the surname O'Gallchobhair, or "descendants of Ghallchobar" in honor of their patronymic ancestor. Prior to this time, a person with the name Ghallcobhar did not necessarily have any blood relation to any other person by that name, as names were descriptive of character or status, and not of lineage.

The connection of the O'Gallchobhair sept to the Clann Domhnaill was very intimate historically. They served as the clan's military marshals as well as clerics. They were referred to in later histories as the "gallglaigh of the O'Donnell's," borrowing the term gallglaigh from the descriptive name of several mercenary septs imported from Scotland to provide military power to certain chieftains in the region. The English called them the Gallowglass, which quickly gained a reputation for large, fierce infantry troops.

Some historians have supposed that the O'Gallchobhair surname comes from the gallglaigh, which literally means "foreign young soldiers." The O'Gallchobhair surname, however, predates the gallglaigh by several hundred years at least. In addition, the O'Gallchobhair were noted as cavalry, while the gallglaigh were infantry. And finally, the gallglaigh were mercenary troops, while the O'Gallchobhair were steadfastly loyal to the Domhnaill.

In some area the name was shorted to Gallch which became a pet form of the surname. Pronounced "Gall-hew" in Irish, the name actually means foreign hound, which is not inconsistent with the meaning of Gallchobhair considering the esteemed role of the hound in Irish history and myth as a defender of property.

Today the surname is generally spelled Gallagher, and pronounced in most of Ireland without the middle g according to the phonetic rules of Irish, or (roughly) GAWL-uh-hair or GAWL -uh-hore. Anglic speaking cultures (England, Australia, Canada, U.S.) mostly insist on pronouncing the middle g, as GALL-a-ger.

There are a veritable host of variant spellings around the world, including Gallaher, Galliher, Gallaugher, Gollaher, Golliher, Gallihue and even Gollyhoo.

There are several other less plausible theories of the meaning of the name, which include "valiant victor," or "bright (from middle Irish geal) helper," and even "lover of Vikings." In the Manx language, Gallagh means Gallic, referring to the Gaoidhelic language, and -er translates "on you," rendering the meaning "Gallic on you" or, "speaker of Gallic (language)." Maybe it is really that simple!

Name Variations:  Gallacher,Gallagher,O'Gallagher,Gallchor,Gallicher,Gollaher,Golliger,Golliher,Gallinger,Gullihue,Gulliver.

References:
One or more of the following publications has been referenced for this article.
The General Armory; Sir Bernard Burke - 1842.
A Handbook of Mottoes; C.N. Elvin - 1860.
Irish Families, Their Names, Arms & Origins; Edward MacLysaght - 1957.
The Surnames of Ireland; Edward MacLynsaght - 1957.
The Book of Irish Families Great and Small.
Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gallagher_(surname)






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